Performing Hajj once in a lifetime is Fardh and hence it is necessary for every individual who is intending to undertake the blessed journey to get the proper information about Hajj and its different types through authenctic sources in order to perform the lifetime obligation in a proper manner. For this reason, a brief introduction to difference types of Hajj is presented herein.
There are three types of Hajj, Ifraad, Qiraan and Tamattu’.
a) Ifraad is to put on the special pilgrim garb (Ihraam) with the intention of performing only Hajj.
b) Qiraan is to perform Umarah first in the months of Hajj-Shawwal, Zul-Qa’dah, and the first eight days of Zul-Hijjah and then perform Hajj with the same Ihraam. One will remain in the Haram of Makkah in the state of Ihraam from the moment one enters Meeqaat-places marked out on different sides of the city of Makkah which can not be passed by a pilgrim coming for the Hajj or Umrah from a place lying beyond them without putting on the Ihraam till the Ihraam is put off on the 10th of Zul-Hijjah.
c) Tamattu’ is to perform Umrah first in the months of Hajj and then put off the Ihraam. Thereafter perform Hajj with another Ihraam in the same year without returning home.
Most of the Hujjaaj prefer to perform the third type of Hajj, Hajj Tamattu’ because of it being comfortable though the second type of Hajj, Hajj Qiraan is considered the best according to the Hanafi School of Thought. Therefore, the procedure of Tamattu’ would be stated in brief.
HOW TO PERFORM TAMATTU’
Before entering the Meeqaat, cleanse yourself removing unnecessary hair from the body, clip nails, intercourse with wife, if possible and then take a bath or make ablution for putting on the Ihraam. After that, take out (men) stitched clothes and wear two white pieces of cloth; one for the lower portion of the body and the other for the upper portion leaving the head and face uncovered. No other garments should be worn. The footwear should not cover the center bones of the upper part of the feet. Women will put on their normal clothes covering the heads. The face and the hand up to wrists could be exposed if they do not fear Fitnah. Otherwise, faces must be covered in a way that the covering does not touch the face like cloak etc. Apply perfume on the body and clothes. Men should apply colourless perfume, while women should apply fragranceless perfume/cream provided the stains of perfume do not exist on clothes after applying. Perform two Rak’aah Sunnatul Ihraam with the headgear. After reciting Fatihah, recite Suratul-Kaafiroon in the first Rak’aah and Suratul-Ikhlaas in the second Rak’aah. This Salaah should not be performed during the forbidden and Makrooh times such as sunrise, when the sun reaches its zenith, sunset and after Asr and Farj Salaah. A woman who is not in the state of performing Salaah will not perform this Sunnah. She will perform Ghusl.
After making Salaam, make Niyyah of Ihraam just sitting on the mat with bare head (for men) facing the Qiblah and pronounce, Allahummah Innee Ureedul-Umrah Fa Yassirhaa Lee Wa Taqbalhaa Minnee. Thereafter, recite Talbiyah thrice in a loud voice and women softly:
“Allahumma Labbaika. Labbaika, la Sharika Laka. Labbaika, Innal Hamda Wan Ni’mata Laka Wal Mulka. La Sharika Lak”
After making Niyyah and reciting Talbiyah, one becomes a Muhrim, one whose Ihraam is valid. When in Ihraam, recite Talbiyah as often as possible, particularly when situation changes such as time of riding and alighting, climbing a high place and going down, in the morning at the time of awaking, when meeting someone and after every Salaah. There is no other practice is necessary to be carried out before entering the Haram. One should be mindful of the things forbidden in the state of Ihraam. A Muhrim should abstain from the following:
v All types of sins, though sins are prohibited all the times
v Intercourse and everything relating or leading to it
v Quarrelling, transgressing and using offensive languages
v Clipping nails
v Hunting of wildlife, asking or helping a hunter in anyway, chasing, destroying the eggs or taking advantage of wildlife at any cost
v Killing or removing lice from the body, asking or indicating others for killing or removing
v Using perfume, scent and every substance that has a fragrance
v Trimming, shaving or clipping hair from any part of the body
v Rubbing body in a way that hair falls off, is Makrooh
v Wearing stitched garments or underwear (man)
v Putting on gloves or socks
v Covering the center bones of the upper part of the feet by shoes
v Concealing head and face (man)
v Dyeing hair
v Combing hair and beard is Makrooh
v Making Khilaal of beard is Makrooh
v Scratching hair or beard in a manner that hair or lice may fall off, is Makrooh
v Washing one’s head and beard with soap and removing dirt from the body by using soap or any other cleansing means is also Makrooh
v It is Makrooh to stitch the loincloth from front
v It is Makrooh to tie the covering sheet round the neck, tie the sheet and the loincloth with a knot, pin them together or tie them with thread etc.
v Smelling and touching perfume intentionally is Makrooh
v It is Makrooh to tie a strip of cloth round the body with the exception of head and mouth without any necessity.
v It is Makrooh to let the covering cloth of Ka’aba touch one’s head or face
v It is Makrooh to lie face-ward on the pillow
Before entering Makkatul Mukarramah, take a bath without using soap or make Wudhu and enter from the door of Mu’allah reciting Talbiyah. Find accommodation and settle down everything. Thereafter enter the Musjidul Haraam with utmost humility and respect, preferably, through the door of Salaam. Enter with the right foot and recite after Talbiyah:
“Alllahummaftah li Abwaba Rahmatik.”
A woman who is not in the state of performing Salaah, should not enter the Musjid. On sighting the Ka’bah recite, “Allahu Akbar, Laa Ilaha Illallahu Wallahu Akbar” make Du’aa and recite, “Allahumma Zid Baitaka Haza Tashreefawn Wa Takreemawn Wa Ta’zimawn Wa Barra.”
One should pray for one’s own well-fare or desires at this point of sighting the Ka’bah. It is appreciable to pray for getting paradise after death and protection from the punishment of grave.
Thereafter move towards Hajr-e-Aswad reciting Talbiyah to perform Tawaaf-e-Qudoom provided that there is no fear of missing Jama’ah, Witr or Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah. Otherwise Salaah should be performed before commencing the Tawaaf.
Before beginning with the Tawaaf, make Iztibaa by taking out the upper garment from below the right armpit and put it on the left shoulder leaving the right arm entirely exposed. Face the Hajar-e-Aswad in a manner that the right shoulder is next to the left corner of the Hajar-e-Aswad and the entire Hajar-e-Aswad remains on your right side and make the Niyyah of Tawaaf. Say verbally, “Allahumma Innee Ureedu Tawaafa Baitikal-Haraam Sab’ta Ashwaat, Fyassirhu Li Wa Taqabbalhu Minnee”.
Thereafter move sideways so that the Hajr-e-Aswad comes in front and raising both the hands up to the ears as one does at the beginning of Salaah, say, “Bismillahi Allahu Akbar Laa Ilaaha Illallahu Wa Lillahil Hamd. Wassalatu Wassalamo Ala Rasulillah. Allahumma Imanam Bika Wa Tasdiqam bikitabika Wa Wafa am Bia’hdika Wattiba al-Lisunnati Nabiyeka Muhammadin Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam.”
Lower the hands and place them on the stone and kiss it gently without a sound between the two palms. If this is not possible, merely place the hands on the Hajr-e-Aswad and kiss them. If this is also not possible, touch Hajar-e-Aswad with a piece of wood or anything else and then kiss it. If this is also not possible, then merely raise the hands to the ears indicating towards it with the palms while the back of the hands is towards the face and say the Takbeer and read Durood considering that the hands are on the Hajar-e-Aswad and then kiss the hands. But never harass, push or hurt anyone in the process. Now commence moving towards the door of Ka’bah, the right hand side keeping the Ka’bah and Hateem towards the left shoulder, but do not walk between them. On reaching Rukn-e-Yamaanee, place both the palms or right one on it but do not kiss it nor do indicate to it with hands in case of huge crowds or inconvenience. On reaching Hajar-e-Aswad one Shawt, round is complete. In the same way, six more circuits should be made. Men should make Ramal by walk hastily, taking shorter steps, lifting the legs forcefully, keeping the chest out and moving the shoulders simultaneously in the first three circuits of the Tawaaf. At the end of the seventh circuit, kiss again the Hajar-e-Aswad for the eighth time and then the Tawaaf is complete. Afterward, move reciting “Wattakhizu Mim-Maqaami Ibraheema Musallah” towards Maqaam-e-Ibraheem, which stands on eastern side of Baitullah, near Mataaf (the area where Tawaaf is performed) and perform taking note of the forbidden and Makrooh times two Rakaat Wajib Salaah with covering of arms, preferably behind Maqaam-e-Ibraheem or at any place around. Recite Suratul Kafiroon in the first Rakaat and Ikhlaas in the second Rakaat after reciting the Fatihah. Only Du’aa should be made during the forbidden and Makrooh times and these two Rakaah should be performed as the forbidden or Makrooh time ends. If the Tawaaf is performed after Asr then the two Rakaat will be performed immediately after the Fardh of Maghrib before performing the Sunnah.
The next step is proceeding to the Multazam, the area between the elevated door of the Ka’bah and the Hajar-e-Aswad. On reaching the Multazm, Multazam, place the chest and right cheek on the wall of the Ka’bah and raise the right hand to the doorframe and ask for forgiveness and make Du’aa grasping the cloth of the Ka’bah. Engage in Du’aa for a while and then kiss the doorframe. After the Du’aa, go to the well of Zam-Zam and drink as much water as possible in three sips facing the Qiblah. Shower some water on the body as well. Recite the following Du’aa while drinking the Zam-Zam water:
“Allahumma Innee Asaluka Ilman-Nafi’a Wa Rizqan-Wasi’a Wa Amalan-Saliha Wa Shifaam-Min Kulli Daa”
After drinking Zam-Zam, go back to the Hajar-e-Aswad, kiss it and come out from the door of Safaa. Place the left foot first and reci, “Allahummaghfirli Zunoobee Waftahli Abwaba Fazlik”. On reaching near by Safaa, recite, “Abdau Bima Badaallahu Bih, Innassafa Wal Marwata Min Sha’ayrillah” and climb one third of Safaa and facing the Qiblah, raise the hands parallel to the shoulders as they are raised during Du’aa, and then say Takbeer, Tahleel and Hamd three times each. Make a lot of Du’aa there. After the Du’aa, climb down the rock and move towards Marwah walking at normal pace. On reaching the center of the valley, men should jog the area between the two green lights. Thereafter walk at normal pace again to Marwah. Read between Safaa and Marwah, “Rabbighfir Warham Wa Antal- Aa’zzul-Akram”. On reaching Marwah, do exactly the same as you did at Safaa. Now one Shawt-circuit is complete. Coming from Safaa to Marwah is considered one Shawt, and returning to Safaa another. Complete all seven Shawts in a like manner, beginning the first Shawt at Safaa and completing the seventh one at Marwah. Do not forget to perform Sa’ee-slow running at the center of the valley in each Shawt. After completing seven Shawt, perform two Rak’aat Nafil Salaah within the boundary of Mataaf.
Now get the hair of hear shaved or trimmed and take off the Ihraam. All the things which were forbidden because of Ihraam, become permissible even sexual intercourse and use of perfume. Stay at Makkah or any other place but do not leave for home.
On eight Zilhijjah, after sunrise put on the Ihraam for Hajj preferably from Masjid Al-Haram if you were staying at Makkah but if you are coming from Madinah then put on the Ihraam from Zulhulaifah, Beer-e-Ali and reach Minaa at a time that the Zuhar Salaah can be performed there in its Mustahab time. Stay at Minaa and perform therein five obligatory Salaah from the Zuhar of 8th till the Fajr of 9th Zilhijjah. After the sunrise on 9th, proceed to Arafaat reciting Talbiah and Takbeer. On seeing Jabl-e-Rahmaat-mountain of mercy, a hill at Arafaat, recite Takbeer, Talbiyah, Durood Shareef and make Du’aa. Stay as near as possible to the Masjid-e-Namirah. After having meal, take a bath before mid-day or make Wudhu and do not follow the Imaam in the Masjid where Zuhar and Asr Salaah will be performed together at the time of Zuhar. Perform each Salaah separately at its prescribed time with other fellow Hajji in congregation inside the comp. After the Salaah engage yourself in Istighfaar, Azkaar and Du’aa and stay as near as possible to Jable Rahmaat. But do not climb the mountain. Facing the Qiblah stand on the place where you are staying and engage in Du’aas up to the sunset. Sitting and sleeping are also permitted. After sunset without reading Maghrib Salaah, proceed to Muzdalifa via Mazmin following the Imaam and do not stay in the way. On reaching the out-skirts of Muzdalifa, get down from the conveyance and enter Muzdalifa walking on food. At Muzdalifa, the Maghrib and Ishaa Salaah will be performed together with one Azaan and one Takbeer at the time of Ishaa. No other Salaah should be performed between these Salaah. The Sunnah of Mughrib and Ishaa as well as Witr should be performed after the Ishaa Salaah. It is appreciable to keep awake all the night at Muzdalifa performing Nafl Salaah, reciting the Glorious Qur’aan and doing other virtuous deeds. At dawn when it is still dark, read Fajr Salaah following the Imam if possible, otherwise individually and then facing the Qiblah recite Talbiyah, Tasbeeh and engage in Du’aa raising the hands preferably near by the mountain Quz. And then before sunrise, return to Minaa very patiently and humbly reciting Talbiyah and remembering Allaah. On reaching Wadi-e-Muhssar, pass it running or at a fast speed, if in conveyance. Before moving from Muzdalifah, collect seven pebbles of the size of a horse gram. These pebbles should not be collected from a dirty place. After reaching Minaa, go from the center of the valley near by the last Jamarah, the symbolic stone. Stand to a distance of more than five feet from the Jamrah in such a way that Minaa is on your right side and Makkah on the left. Pick up the pebbles with thumb and forefinger of the right hand and throw it at the Jamarah. Stop reciting Talbiyah on throwing the first pebble and recite, “Bismillahi Allahu Akbar, Raghman lish-Shaitaan Wa Rizan Lir-Rahmaan”. Raise the hand while throwing the pebbles to an extent that the armpit exposes. After pelting, slaughter a goat/sheep or one seventh portion of a big animal should be offered and then get the hair of head shaved or trimmed. But shaving is preferable for men. Women should cut their hair equal to a finger’s tip. Then go to Makkah preferably on the same day and perform Tawaaf-e-Ziarah. Thereafter, return to Minaa. Now Ihraam is removed and recitation of Talbiyah is stopped. All the things and acts, which were prohibited because of Ihraam, become permissible even sexual intercourse and use of perfume. On 11th, 12th and 13th as well, if one stays, the Ramee-pelting of all the three Jamraat will be performed. On each day, seven pebbles after the Zawal will be pelted on each Jamrah beginning with the one near to the Masjid-e-Khaif then the middle one and finally the last one. Make Du’aa facing the Qiblah after pelting the first and the middle Jamarah as well. There is no Du’aa after the pelting of final Jamarah.
On returning from Minaa, if possible alight at Muhassab even for a short moment. Now the Hajj is complete and one who intends to depart from Makkah, should perform Tawaaf-e-Wida’. After performing the Tawaaf, read two Rakaat Nafl Salaah and then go to Zamzam well and drink its water to heart’s content. And then proceed to Multazam, place the chest and right cheek on the wall of the Ka’bah and raise the right hand to the doorframe and ask for forgiveness and make Du’aa grasping the cloth of the Ka’bah. Engage in Du’aa for a while and then kiss the doorframe. Thereafter kissing the Hajr-e-Aswad, retreat facing the Ka’bah through the door of Wada’ and looking with intense longing, grief and sorrow come out of the Haram-e-Ka’ba. Give money in charity to the poor and needy and make Du’aa. A woman who is not in the state of performing Salaah will not perform this Taawaf and standing at the door of Wada’ without entering the Masjid, she will make Du’aa.