Tafsir of Surah Jumu’ah- Tafsir Jalaalayn

 

 

 

 

  • تفسير Tafsir al-Jalalayn

  • jumu’ah

 

 

 

 

{ يُسَبِّحُ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِي ٱلأَرْضِ ٱلْمَلِكِ ٱلْقُدُّوسِ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْحَكِيمِ }

All that is the heavens and all that is in the earth glorifies God, [all] proclaims His transcendence (the lām [of li’Llāhi] is extra; mā is used instead of min in order to indicate the predominance [of non-rational beings]), the King, the Holy, the One Who transcends what does not befit Him, the Mighty, the Wise, in His kingdom and in His actions.

{ هُوَ ٱلَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي ٱلأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولاً مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ ٱلْكِتَابَ وَٱلْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلاَلٍ مُّبِينٍ }

It is He Who sent to the unlettered [folk], [among] the Arabs (ummī means ‘one who cannot write or read a book’), a messenger from among them, namely, Muhammad (s), to recite to them His signs, the Qur’ān, and to purify them, to cleanse them from idolatry, and to teach them the Book, the Qur’ān, and wisdom, [in] the rulings that it contains, though indeed (wa-in: in has been softened from the hardened form, with its subject having been omitted, that is to say, [understand it as] wa-innahum) before that, [before] his coming, they had been in manifest error.

{ وَآخَرِينَ مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُواْ بِهِمْ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ }

And [to] others (wa-ākharīna is a supplement to al-ummiyyīna, ‘the unlettered’), that is to say, those who are alive, from among them, and [to] those of them who will come after them, who have not yet joined them, with regard to precedence and merit; and He is the Mighty, the Wise, in His kingdom and in His actions: those [mentioned as coming afterwards] are the Successors (al-tābi’ūna);1 and it suffices to mention these [Successors] in order to illustrate the [greater] merit of the Companions, among whom the Prophet (s) was sent, over all those others, of humans and jinn, to whom he was [also] sent and who [believed and] will believe in him up until the Day of Resurrection, for every generation is better than the succeeding one.

{ ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ ٱللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَآءُ وَٱللَّهُ ذُو ٱلْفَضْلِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ }

That is the bounty of God, which He gives to whom He will – [such as] the Prophet and those mentioned with him – and God is [dispenser] of tremendous bounty.

{ مَثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ حُمِّلُواْ ٱلتَّوْرَاةَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَحْمِلُوهَا كَمَثَلِ ٱلْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَاراً بِئْسَ مَثَلُ ٱلْقَوْمِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِآيَاتِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلظَّالِمِينَ }

The likeness of those who were entrusted with the Torah, those who were charged with implementing it, then failed to uphold it, [then] failed to act in accordance with it, in what pertains to the descriptions of the Prophet (s), and so did not believe in him, is as the likeness of an ass carrying books, in that it does not benefit from them. Evil is the likeness of the people who deny God’s signs, those confirming the truth of the Prophet (s) – the object of rebuke is omitted but is implied to be hādhā’l-mathalu, ‘this likeness’). And God does not guide the evildoing folk, the disbelievers.

{ قُلْ يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُوۤاْ إِن زَعمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ لِلَّهِ مِن دُونِ ٱلنَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُاْ ٱلْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ }

Say: ‘O you of Jewry, if you claim that you are the [favoured] friends of God, to the exclusion of other people, then long for death, if you are truthful’ (in kuntum sādiqīna is semantically connected to tamannū, ‘long for’; as for the two conditions, the first is dependent on the second, that is to say, if you are truthful in your claim that you are the [favoured] friends of God, and given that [such] a friend would prefer the Hereafter [to this world] and that it [the Hereafter] begins at death, then long for it).

{ وَلاَ يَتَمَنَّونَهُ أَبَداً بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْديهِمْ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِٱلظَّالِمِينَ }

But they will never long for it, because of what their hands have sent ahead, in the way of their disbelief of the Prophet, [which itself is] a necessary consequence of their denial; and God is Knower of the evildoers, the disbelievers.

{ قُلْ إِنَّ ٱلْمَوْتَ ٱلَّذِي تَفِرُّونَ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مُلاَقِيكُمْ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ عَالِمِ ٱلْغَيْبِ وَٱلشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ }

Say: ‘Assuredly the death from which you flee (fa-innahu: the fā’ is extra) will indeed encounter you; then you will be returned to the Knower of the Unseen and the visible, [the Knower of] what is [kept] secret and what is in the open, and He will inform you of what you used to do’, whereat He will requite you for it.

{ يٰأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوۤاْ إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلاَةِ مِن يَوْمِ ٱلْجُمُعَةِ فَٱسْعَوْاْ إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ ٱللَّهِ وَذَرُواْ ٱلْبَيْعَ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ }

O you who believe, when the call for prayer is made on Friday, hasten, set off, to the remembrance of God, to the prayer, and leave aside [all] commerce, suspend [all] such contracts. That is better for you, should you know, that it is better for you, then do it.

{ فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ ٱلصَّلاَةُ فَٱنتَشِرُواْ فِي ٱلأَرْضِ وَٱبْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱذْكُرُواْ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيراً لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ }

And when the prayer is finished, disperse in the land (this is an imperative denoting permissibility)2 and seek, provision through, God’s bounty, and remember God, with remembrance, frequently, that perhaps you may be successful, [that perhaps] you may be the winners.

{ وَإِذَا رَأَوْاْ تِجَارَةً أَوْ لَهْواً ٱنفَضُّوۤاْ إِلَيْهَا وَتَرَكُوكَ قَآئِماً قُلْ مَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ خَيْرٌ مِّنَ ٱللَّهْوِ وَمِنَ ٱلتِّجَارَةِ وَٱللَّهُ خَيْرُ

 

ٱلرَّازِقِينَ }

On one occasion the Prophet (s) was delivering the Friday sermon when a caravan arrived and so, as was the custom, drums were beaten to announce its arrival, whereat the people began to leave the mosque [to go to it], all except for twelve men. The following [verse] was then revealed: But when they sight some [opportunity for] business or a diversion, they scatter off towards it, that is, towards the business, since it is what they seek more than diversion, and leave you, during the sermon, standing. Say: ‘That which is with God, in the way of reward, is better, for those who believe, than diversion and commerce. And God is the best of providers’. They say that every person ‘provides for’ (yarzuqu) his dependants, [by which they mean that such a person does so] by means of the provision given by God (min rizqi’Llāhi), exalted be He.

 

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