Aqidah Sahiha

Bismillah ar rahman ar raheem
Alhamdulilah allahumma sali ala muhammad wa ala ali muhammad
Taken from ‘Aqidah Sahiha’ by Ibn khafif (rahimahullah)
1. Godhead
1. Glory and praise to Allah who has guided us in His paths! He has sent down the book to us. He has lavished His gifts upon us in the persons of the Prophets(alayhum salam). He has shown us their tracks and their means of crossing the waters. He has detailed the verses and the suras, cautioning and warning, forbidding and commanding, prohibiting, haranguing and rebuking. These verses and suras are His admonishment for those who heed admonishment, His wisdom for those who profit from wisdom. To Allah belongs all praise first and last, open and hidden! Blessings upon the best being in all creation-muhammad(salalahu alayhi wa salam), the elect-and upon his most pure family, the chosen ones!

2. To proceed: Verily, the one who is endowed with reason is he who believes what is right as his preparation for meeting his Lord; who sifts clean his intentions so that he purifies his deeds; who excels in worship of his Lord so that he supplies himself for his return; and who knows that he was not created in vain nor will he be left aimless. Therefore, let each one strive to make firm the ties of his religion, purify his deeds, and correct his worship. There, lies religion’s completion, purity, increase, and growth. And it is Allah who grants success in leading one to the paths of guidance and to whatever He loves and accepts.

3. THe first need of Allah’s servant is belief in absolute oneness (al-tawhid) by which all works become complete. To achieve it one must hold the following beliefs.

4. Allah is One, but not in the sense of sequential number (al’adad) nor in that of units (al-ahad).

5. He is “something” yet not like things (shay’un la kal-ashya’). (Or: “He is an entity but not in the sense of created entities.”)

6. There is no resemblance unto Him in all His creation

7. There is no opposite (didd) for Him in all His Dominion.

8. There is no equal (nidd) for Him in all His handiwork.

9. He is neither a body (jism), nor an accident (‘arad), nor an indivisible substance (jawhar). (“Accident” in the sense of a nonessential attribute characterizing, like “substance,” created things)

10. In no way does He subsist in originated matters.(or: “Contingencies.”) (al-hawadith) nor they in Him.

11. He does not in any way indwell anything nor does indwell Him.

12. He does not manifest himself in anything (la yatajalla fi shay’in) (Due to the mutually exclusive nature of contingency (huduth) and incontingency (qidam). The former refer to whatever is created, the latter to the beginningless and uncreated, “and the twain never meet” (la munasaba baynahuma) nor does He hide himself (istatara) with anything created.

13. He is the All Knower of what was and what shall be; of what is not to be and, if it were to be, how it would be. (I.e. Allah knows all possibilities, whether of existent of inexistent thing, and all their consequences.)

14. Allah was when there was nothing with Him:

15. He was (characterized as the) knower when there was nothing to be known; (Wa ya’taqidu annahu) ‘alimun wa la ma’lum.

16. He was (characterized as the) Powerful when there was no object of power; (Qadirun wa la maqdur.)

17. He was (Characterized as the) Seer when there was nothing to be seen; (Ra’in wa la mar’iyy)

18. He was (characterized as the) Sustainer when there was nothing to be sustained; (Raziqun wa la marzuq.)

19. He was (characterized as the) Creator when there was nothing created. (Khaliqun wa la makhluq.)

20. Knowledge is other than sight. (This is in refutation of the mu’tazili doctrine which negates the distinctness of the attributes of sight (basar) and hearing (al-sam’) from the attribute of knowledge (‘ilm), and ilute all three- and the other “Attributes of forms” (sifat al-ma’ani) into the essence.) For He sees all existent things whereiin He knows of all inexistent things, although what is non-existent is not seen nor is properly called a thing.

21. The attribute (al-sifa) is other than the subject of attribution (al-mawsuf) It is a notion pertaining to the subject and subsisting (qa’im) therein. (The Attributes are neither the Essence itself nor other than it (Al sifat laysat ‘aynu al-dhat wa la ghayraha), ans is the school of ahl al-sunna wa al-jama’a” (Al-Qari, Daw’ al-Ma’ali)

22. Allah is Knowing by (the attribute of) knowledge and powerful by (the attribute of) power. In refutation to the mu’tazila who said “He knows with His essence, not with an attribute,” “He is powerful in His essence,” etc.)

23. The Divine attributes are obtained only from the transmitted sources, that is, either what Allah said of Himself, or what the Prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam said of Him, or what the muslims concur about in relation to a given attribute.

24. The divine names are not obtained by making up surnames (talqiban) nor by analogical derivation (qiyasan). (or by using rational guidelines)

25. Neither the Names nor the attributes are created.

26. Allah’s Speech is from Him and goes back to Him; it is heard, written down, preserved, recited, and studied

27. He established Himself over the Throne and descents to the nearest heaven before dawn in the sense of an attribute of His, not in the sense of displacement.

28. He created Adam alayhi salam with His Hand- not “the hand that is His power” but “the hand that is His attribute.””

29. The Same applies with all the sound reports that were narrated concerning the attributes. One holds them true as part of one’s belief and surrenders to them without evaluation nor discussion.

30. The believers shall see Allah on the Day of Ressurection just as they see the full moon on the nights when it rises. They will not be unfairly deprived of seeing Him.

31. They will see Him without encompassment (ihata) nor delimitation (tahdid) within any given limit (hadd), whether from the front, the back, above, below, right, or left.

32. Allah is doer of what He will;

33. Injustice is not attributed to Him

34. And He rules over His dominion as He will, without (anyone’s entitlement to) objection whatsoever.

35. His decree is not revoked nor His judgement amended.

36. He brings near Him whomever He will without (need for) cause and He removes far from Him whomever He will without (need for) cause.

37. His will for His servants is the exact state they are in.

38. His good pleasure is in their obedience, while their disobedience takes place by His will but without His good pleasure.

39. He gives and He witholds, He blames and He praises.

40. Acts belong to Allah, not to creatures, while earning (al-iktisab) belongs to creatures, but earning is created by Allah, not by them.

41. Things do not act of their own nature. Neither does water quench thirst, nor does bread sate hunger, nor does fire burn, but Allah creates satedness simultaneously with eating, and hunger at other times. Likewise, drinking is the drinker’s doing while quenchedness is from Allah, and killing is the killer’s doing while death is from Allah.

42. Imagination cannot perceive Him, nor knowledge encompass Him, nor reason describe Him.

43. He is the One Alone, the Unique, the Everlasting! To Him belong the most beautiful Names and most exalted Attributes. His is the dominion here and hereafter, with glory and praise, thanksgiving, laud, and magnificence.

2 Prophethood

44. Prophethood is true. it is Allah’s great proof over creation, after which they have no excuse left.

45. Our Prophet muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam is the best of the Prophets and messengers alayhum salam and the seal of the prophets after whom there is no prophet. To obey him is an absolute obligation. To contradict or contravene him is disbelief. His command is imperative except for what is established by proof to be only recommended. His (unqualified) acts constitute the sunna.

46. The Prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam is not like anyone of us in all respects.

47. He salalahu alayhi wa salam has acquired a kind of knowledge to which creatures were not summoned.

48. He knows what is and what shall be and he gave news of the unseen.

49. He was taken up bodily on the Ascension, not in vision.

50. He saw his Lord Almighty who spoke to him, imparting to him recommendations, commands, and permissions.

51. He saw the prophets,upon themb lessings and peace

52. He entered paradise, and he saw hellfire.

53. He petitioned and he was granted his request.

54. He spoke and he was heard.

55. He is the first intercessor

56. He shall be the first to rise from the grave.

57. He shall be the first to enter paradise.

58. Allah sent him forth to the totality of human beings and jinn.

59. The law he brought abrogated all previous laws.

60. He has conveyed the Message fully and has exhorted the community in truth and sincerity.

61. All his sins were forgiven, past and future.

62 Allah impsoed upon him certain obligations which He did not impose on his community. He has disallowed for him certain matters which He allowed for other than him.

63. All this is as marks of immense honor from Allah to the Prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam, blessings and peace upon him and upon his family and companions.

3. Generalities

64. Belief (al-iman) is the attribute of the believer (al-mu’min)

65. Declaring the absolute oneness of Allah (tawhid) is the attribute of the true monotheist (muwahhid).

66. Knowledge of Allah (ma’rifa) is the attribute of the Knower (‘arif)

67. Love is the attribute of the lover, all in the same way that knowledge (‘ilm) is the attribute of the poessessor of knowledge(‘alim), and power (Qudra) the attribute of him who possesses power.

68. Belief consist in speech, deed, and intention. It increases and decreases.

69. Belief is a light thrown into the heart, but not the light of the divine Entity.

70. Belief (al-iman) is different from submission (al-islam).

71. Declaring the absolute oneness of Allah (tawhid) is different from knowledge of Allah (ma’rifa).

72. Knowledge of Allah is different from belief.

73. Knowledge of the proofs that establish the reality of the Creator is an obligation.

74. Knowledge of the divine attributes is obtained through effort, while intimate knowledge of Allah (ma’rifa al-takhsis) is a divine gift.

75. The root of belief is a divine gift while the conditions of belief can be met through effort.

76. Belief, declaring the absolute oneness of Allah, and knowledge of Allah have an appearance (zahirun) as well as a reality (haqiqatun).

78. Capacity to act (istita’a) is concomitant with the act.

79. The comfort and ease of the dwellers of paradise shall remain without end as Allah remainds without end, and the punishment of the disbelievers shall remain without end as Allah remains without end.

80. The believers shall be brought out of the Fire, and great sins (al-khaba’ir) will not cause those who commited them to remain therein eternally.

81. Allah does not force His servants to commit disobedience.

82. None enters paradise by virtue of his good deeds but only by Allah munificense, mercy, and favor.

83. Paradise is real; hellfire is real; ressurection is real; the rendering of accounts is real; the balance of deeds is true; the bridge (over the fire); the punishment of the grave is real; and the questioning of the angels munkar and nakir is real.

84. The best human beings after Allah’s messenger salalahu alayhi wa salam is Abu bakr, Umar, then Uthman, then Ali radiallau anhuma.

85. The best of centuries is the one in which was sent the Prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam, then that of the companions, then that of the successors.

86. After the above, the best of times and people are the best in their deeds. Those in whom we see particular merit, we bear witness to it conerning them.

87. Whoever bears the two testimonies of faith, prays in the direction of prayer, remits the purification-tax, fasts the month of ramadan, and goes on pilgrimate to the house, we do not testify taht he shall enter pradise nor hellfire. nor can we testify to his unbelief except ina restricted sense. It is as in Allah’s saying (And pilgrimage to the house is a duty unto ALlah for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. As for him who disbelieves, lo! Allah is independent of creatures.) (3:97) [ The relevance of the verse is that] he who does not perform pilgrimate is not a disbeliever.

88. One prays behind the righteous as wella s the unrighteous. One obeys the ruler even if the latter should be an abyssinian slave.

89. Lone-narrator reports (ahad) make practice obligatory but not knowledge, while mass-narrated (mutawatir) reports make both knowledge and practice obligatory.

90. Reason alone (al-aql) cannot determine right and wrong (la yuhassin wa la yuqabbih). It is the law that holds sway over reason [in determining the licit and the unlawful].

91. People are considered upright until some cause arise to the contrary.

92. All things are permissible until the proof of their prohibitiveness is established.

93. The property and slaughtered meats of the muslims are licit [for transactions and consumption] except that regarding which prohibition has been narrated to us.

4. Tasawwuf

We mention in the fourth section matters which address this group – the sufis – exclusively.

94. Utter dependency (al-faqr) is better than sufficiency (al-ghina).

95. Universal renunciation (al-zuhd fi al-kulliyya) is better than in selected matters (fi al-ba’d).

96. Attainment of the Truth other than by way of worship is impossible.

97. Sight [of Allah] in the world is impossible.

98. Prophethoood (nubuwwa) is greater than sainthood (wilaya), but prophethood cannot be obtained through effort.

99. “Staggering” miracles (al-mu’jizat) are for the prophets, while miraculous gifts (al-karamat) are for saints.

100. Miraculous foresight (al-firasa) can be obtained through effort, but one who is inspired (al-muhaddath) or spoken to [by the angel] (al-mukallam) is other than the one who possesses such foresight.

101. Freedom from the bond of servanthood (al-ubudiyya) is null and void, but freedom from the bond of egotism (al-nufusiyya) is possible. Servanthood can never be cancelled out.

102. The attributes [of human nature] subside in thsoe who have knowledge of Allah but they persist in the seekers (al-muridun).

103. Return [to normality] after attainment [of nearness to Allah] is possible.

104. The servant is taken through various spiritual states (ahwal) until he reaches a high spiritual quality. At that time he knows the Unseen, the earth is folded up for him, he can walk on water and disappear from sight.

105. Intoxication (al-sukr) for the seekers is true, but for the masters it is null and void.

106. Conditions in which Truth overwhelms (ghalabat al-haqq) all things created are possible.

107. States (al-ahwal) are for the intermediary levels, stations (al-maqamat) are for the knowers of Allah, and strain (al-shidda) is for the seekers.

108. Soberness (sahu) is better than intoxication.

109. Slow progressions (al-amad) are better than sudden obliteration (al-istilam).

110. The involvement of the knower in [wordly] things does not detract from his state.

11. If reliance upon Allah (tawakkul) is correct, storing up provisions (al-iddikhar) does no harm.

112. The disobedience (‘isyan) of Prophets (alayhum salam) is a cause for their nearness to Allah and benefits for their Community. They are not called sinners (‘usat). We say: “Adam (alayhi salam) disobeyed” (‘asa), but not “he is a sinner” (‘asin).

113. Tasawwuf is neither knowledge nor deeds but an attribute with which the essence of the sufi adorns itself, possessing knowledge and deeds, and consisting in the balance in which these two are weighed.

114. Tasawwuf is different from utter dependency (faqr), and Godwariness (taqwa) is different from tasawwuf.

115. The utterly depend on (al-faqir) is not allowed to handle material causes [of living] while the sufi is.

116. States are endless but each state ends in another state.

117. Knowledge of Allah, belief, and affirmation of the One God are not states; nor is existence (al-wujud) a state, although it accompanies the servant in his states.

118. The knowledge of those whos trive to obtain knowledge of Allah (al-mu’tarifun) is different from that of those upon whom knowledge of Allah is bestowed (al-mu’arrafun).

119. Spiritual recital (al-sama) is permissible for the knower, but null and void for the seeker.

120. Spiritual recital is neither a state nor an act of drawing near to Allah. It is better to leave it altogether because of its many evils and great dangers.

121. All that the impassioned lover (al-wajid) may find, still, he is impassioned and nothing more. Tuth itself lies beyond.

122. Whoever makes Allah the subject of erotic singing (samma’a billah) commits disbelief, and whoever makes a creature the subject of singing in lustful sense (bi ma’na al-nufusiyya) commits a grave sin.

123. However, the self-realized impassioned lover (al-wajid al-muhaqqiq) is protected [from committing disbelief or grave sins].

124. Those prone to being overcome must proceed according to whatever obligations they missed [while being overcome]. When they return to praying they make them up. Those who persist in their silence are excused.

125. Satan does not know what is in a servant’s heart and has not the least right to insinuate or whisper anything to him.

126. The self or ego (al-nafs) is other than the soul or spirit (al-ruh), and the soul is other than the biological life (al-hayat).

127. The soul parts with the body when the latter sleeps, unlike biological life. The latter parts with the body only if the body dies. They are created.

128. All this was readily recalled at this time. It contains a persuisive argument for you [the reader], if Allah wills. After this, keep faith in the goodness of people, their sincerity, and their loyalty. At the same time, beware of their sickleness and treachery for that is their nature.

 

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