what is the diffrence between sadaqah wajiba and sadaqah nafilah, and what is the benefit in giving either of those.
The difference between Sadaqah Waajibah and Naafilah is that the Waajibah is the Sadaqah which is necessary to pay such as Zakaat, Sadaqa-e-Fitr and so on, while the Naafilah is the one which is optional to give like giving money in charity.
The Sadaqah Waajibah can not be given to each and every one. It has some specific recipients which are stated in the Glorious Qur’aan. The recipients are as follows:
1)Fuqaraa (those who possess more than basic need but do not possess wealth equal to the Nisaab)
2)Masaakeen (people who are extremely needy to the extent that they are forced to beg for their daily food ration)
3)Wal-Aamileen (those who are appointed by the Islaamic head of state or government to administer the funds of Zakaat, though they are rich)
4)Muallafatul Quloob (the category of those whose hearts are to be reconciled in the interest of Faith and Muslims. It includes the rich as well.)
5)Ar-Riqaab (liberation of slaves and ransoming of the prisoners of war held by the enemy)
6)Alghaarimeen (those who are heavily indebted and not able to cope on their own)
7)Fee Sabeelillah (the needs relating to the defense and protection of faith and supremacy of the Word of Allah)
8)Ibnussabeel (those who are travelers in the view of Shariah and during the course of their journey do not possess basic necessities, though they are rich at home)
It is not permitted to give Waajib Sadaqah to anyone beside the above-stated people. Therefore, Waajib Sadaqah cannot be given to non-Muslims, one’s father/grandfather, mother/grandmother, son/grandson, daughter/granddaughter and spouse, whereas Nafl Sadaqah can be given to them.
The one who pays the Waajib Sadaqah will be considered free from his responsibility and will be reward, if he has paid it with Ikhlaas-sincerity. If one doesn’t pay one’s Waajib Sadaqah then one will be sinful.
As regard to Nafl Sadaqah, one will be rewarded if given with Ikhlaas, but there is no punishment if one does not pay it.
والله اعلم بالصواب