إِنَّمَا ٱلصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَآءِ وَٱلْمَسَاكِينِ وَٱلْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَٱلْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي ٱلرِّقَابِ وَٱلْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
The Sadaqāt (prescribed alms) are (meant) only to be given to the poor, the needy, to those employed to collect them, to those whose hearts are to be won, in the cause of the slaves and those encumbered with debt, in the way of Allah and to a wayfarer. This is an obligation prescribed by Allah. Allah is All-Knowing, Wise.[9:60]
Zakaat is one of the five pillars of islam and it is an important factor in the Muslim society, ridding it of poverty and establishing consideration of the poor in the hearts of the wealthy. This is the pillar that makes islam unique and special because it encourages trade and yet it instills the fervor of generosity in the hearts of the believers. Rasulullaah صلي الله عليه و صلم has mentioned that the zakat will be taken from the rich and be given to the poor. The beauty of the zakaat is that it is only calculated from excess wealth that is with a person for more than a year. Only 21/2% is taken from the excess wealth and handed over to the poor.
Zakaat in reality means purification. In the shariah it refers to the purification of ones wealth from all that was accumalated in a manner that shariah does not allow but done unknowingly.
The giving of zakaat is a means of prevention of calamities befalling our society. Rasulullaah صلي الله عليه و سلم is reported to have said “>no nation rejects giving of zakaat except that ALLAH inflicts them with drought.” (awsat) . In another hadeeth it is narrated by sayyidina Umar رضي اله غنه that Rasulullaah صلي الله عليه و سملم said, ” No loss of wealth takes place except due to holding back your zakaat.” (jaami3us sagheer)
As for the zakaat, its compulsion and how it is to be calculated, these are all mentioned in one beautiful hadeeth of our beloved Rasool صلي الله غليه و سلم which clearly mentions all these factors. Sayyidina Ali كرم الله وجهه narrated from Rasulullaah صلي الله عليه و سلم , ” When you possess 200 dirhams and a year passes over it then you will give 5 dirhams (in zakaat). As for gold there is no zakaat until it reaches 20 dinars. When you possess 20 dinars and a year passes over it then you should take out a half a dinar. Whatever amount you have more will be calculated likewise.” The narrator mentions i do not know it the words ‘the calculation will be likewise’ is the statement of Ali or did he mention it as the word od Rasulullaah.” there will be no zakaat on wealth until a year passes over it.” (abu dawood) From this hadeeth that has been classified as saheeh by Bukhaari there is clear proof of the amount to be paid is 21/2% and not five as some so called scholars claim. In it is ease for the rich and also benefit for the poor.
INSHA ALLAH THE MASAAIL CONCERNING ZAKAAH AND IT RECIPIENTS WILL BE ADDED ON SOON.