بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
WHAT IS SAWM
Sawm is one of the five pillars of Islam and it is to stay away from eating, drinking, smoking and having sex with the intention of fasting from the early dawn up to the sunset.
There are some actions that invalidate one’s fast. These actions are of two types: some make only Qaza necessary while the others make both Qaza and Kaffaarah compulsory.
QAZAA OF SAWM
It means to observe another Sawm in order to make up for the one that was broken.
KAFFARAH OF SAWM
Kaffarah of Sawm is to fast for two Islamic months or sixty days continuously. One who is unable to fast for two month may feed sixty poor people for two meals or give each of them half Sa’ of wheat or its flour which is approximately 1.769 grams or its equivalent in case.
MUSTAHAAB ACTS FOR FASTING PERSON
Ø To partake of Sehree
Ø To partake of Sehree during its last time
Ø To break Sawm just after sunset
Ø To refrain from offensive talk
Ø To give Sadaqah and recite the Glorious Qur’aan as much as possible
MAKROOH ACTS FOR FASTING PERSON
Ø To taste or chew something without any valid reason
Ø To chew food for child
Ø To kiss or embrace one’s wife when one fears of ejaculation or intercourse
Ø To store up saliva in mouth and then swallow it
Ø To do such act which causes weakness like cuffing or removing blood
Ø To use toothpaste or tooth powder, etc.
ACTS NOT MAKROOH FOR FASTING PERSON
Ø To kiss or embrace one’s wife when there is no fear of ejaculation or intercourse
Ø To apply oil to the moustaches
Ø To apply Surmah
Ø To get cupping
Ø To get removal of blood
Ø To do Miswaak
Ø To gurgle or cleanse nose with water beside performing Wuzoo
Ø To take a bath for entertainment
Ø To wrap oneself with wet clothes in order to feel cold
FACTORS ALLOW LEAVING OFF SAWM
Ø Sickness. A sick person who fears that fasting may cause serious harm to him because of the past experience or prescription prescribed by a Muslim, just, religious and experienced doctor then such a sick person is permitted not to observe Sawm. Merely fear or the prescription of non-Muslim or unreligious doctor is not enough to leave off the Sawm.
Ø Journey. A person who travels 77 km distance or more is permitted to leave off Sawm. But if the journey is comfortable then observing Sawm is better.
Ø Force. One who is forced to leave off the Sawm is permitted to leave off.
Ø Pregnancy. A pregnant woman who fears that Sawm may cause serious harm to her own self or to the fetus is permitted not to observe the Sawm.
Ø Breastfeeding. A breastfeeding woman who fears that fasting may cause serious harm to her own self or to the baby is permitted to leave off the Sawm.
Ø Hunger. One who feels extreme hunger in such a way that one feels one is going to die is permitted to leave off the fast.
Ø Thirst. One who feels extreme thirst that makes one feel that one is going to die then one is permitted not to observe Sawm.
Ø Old age. One who is too old to fast is permitted to leave off the Sawm.
Ø Struggling. One who is struggling in the path of Allah is permitted to leave off the Sawm
SOME OF THINGS THAT MAKE NEITHER QAZAA NOR KAFFAARAH WAJIB
Ø To eat, drink or have sex forgetting the fasting
Ø To eat something which is stuck between the teeth and less than a grain in size
Ø To pick something up from out side, put it into the mouth and chew it but it is so small that the taste doesn’t reach the throat or is not felt by the throat.
Ø To swallow a mosquito, a fly or any other living being unintentionally
Ø To swallow dust and dirt unwillingly
Ø To swallow mucus, better to remove it
Ø To swallow one’s own saliva
Ø To enter smoke into one’s mouth and goes down the throat unintentionally
Ø To vomit even with full of mouth and then it goes back unwillingly
Ø To vomit intentionally less than a full of mouth
Ø To take out blood from body
Ø To cup
Ø To flow blood from nose
Ø To take a bath
Ø Water enters the ears during bathing or swimming
Ø To apply Surmah into the eyes even ones feels its taste
Ø To apply medicine in eyes
Ø To take injection
Ø To rub oil on the body, the hair or moustaches
Ø To smell and apply perfume
Ø To brush the teeth with Miswaak
Ø To use toothpaste or tooth powder, etc.
Ø To use repeatedly the same twig to clean one’s ear
Ø To backbite, but this is a grave sin
Ø To intend to break the fast but not to break practically
Ø To have wet-dream
Ø To ejaculate only by looking at or thinking of a woman
SOME OF ACTIONS THAT BREAK ONE’S FAST AND MAKE ONLY QAZAA WAJIB
Ø To eat or drink forgetting that one is fasting and thereafter thinking that the fast is broken, to eat or drink again intentionally
Ø To eat, drink or have sex after early dawn thinking that there is time to dawn or break the fast before sunset due to a cloudy sky or a faulty watch and so on and then to realize one’s fault
Ø To break fast by eating, drinking or having sex with force
Ø To eat something that is stuck between the teeth and of the size of a grain (horse gram)
Ø To abstain from eating, drinking and having sex without an intention
Ø To swallow something which is not taken generally as food, medicine or entertainment such as eating a large quantity of salt or uncooked rice at one go, iron, wood, small pieces of stone, soil and so on. But if a person is habitually eater of the above-mentioned articles then his Sawm is broken and both Qazaa and Kaffaarah will be Wajib.
Ø To swallow the blood flows from gums when the colour of blood is equal or more than the saliva which is mixed with it
Ø Blood flows from gums and teeth and reaches the throat
Ø To swallow water during gurgling, conscious of one’s fasting
Ø To vomit with a full mouth intentionally or to swallow the vomit
Ø To drop water, oil or medicine into the ears
Ø The drop of water or ice enters into one’s mouth and then goes down the throat unwillingly
Ø To apply medicine to the nose
Ø To break fast because of extreme thirst or hunger that makes one feel that one is going to die
Ø To break any fast other than that of Ramadhan
Ø To break fast intentionally and then fall ill or see (woman) menses on the same day
Ø A Muqeem (one who is not in journey) starts journey after Subh Assadiq and breaks the Sawm
Ø A Musafir (one who travels 77 km distance or more) intends to stay at a place for fifteen days and then breaks the Sawm
Ø To remain in the state of coma (unconscious) even for the whole month of Ramadhan, but one will not make the Qazaa of the day coma has started. If one gets recovery from madness during the month of Ramazaan then one will observe the remaining days and make Qazaa of the ones pasted.
Ø To ejaculate by masturbating, kissing, embracing or touching a woman
Ø To apply medicine to the wound on stomach or brain and the medicine reaches the stomach or the brain
Ø To put cotton or wool inside the bum or insert a finger wet with water, oil or medicine
Ø To insert a finger wet with water, oil or medicine in one’s private part
Ø To use asthma pump in the case of necessity
THINGS THAT MAKE BOTH QAZAA AND KAFFAARAH WAJIB
Ø To eat or drink something, which is taken generally as food, medicine or entertainment intentionally without any valid reason
Ø To have sexual intercourse purposely
Ø To swallow the saliva of wife or girl-fried
Ø To eat or drink intentionally after backbiting, removing blood, applying oil to the moustaches, touching, kissing or embracing a woman without ejaculating, thinking that the Sawm has been broken
Ø To enjoy with French-kiss
Ø To eat a little salt
Ø To swallow purposely the drop of rain enters into one’s mouth
Ø To swallow wheat or any food flour
Ø To pick up even a single grain of wheat, sesame-seed or similar things from outside of mouth and then swallow it
Ø To chew wheat and the wheat or its taste reaches the throat