Patterns within

Patterns Within

 

 

 

 

Bismillah

 

Nahmaduhu wa nusall-li 3alayh

 

Wa Alaikom As Salam

 

He (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Indeed, the people of the Book before you split-up into seventy-two sects. And this nation will split-up into seventy-three sects, seventy two are in the Fire and one is in Paradise.” [5] And in another narration, “All of them are in the Fire except one.” It was asked, ‘Who is that one?’ He replied, “That which I and my Companions are upon.”

 

Because every true Muslim would like to be from whoever is fulfilling these authentic ahadeeth of the Messenger SAW today…. so let’s begin..

 

—-

Bismillah

 

 

The main thing they were upon was , “Say: This is my way. I call to Allah with firm conviction/full cognition/insight  – Me and My followers -. …. ”  The Holy Qur’an (12:108)

 

Their hearts were the purest and their knowledge was very deep.

They had firm conviction in Allah SWT’s Word and His Prophet SAW and his tradition.

They concerned themselves with gathering luggage for the akhira.

They had the best qualities.

Their aqeedah was simple yet they believed with affirmity in every single letter of the Qur’an and implemented its teachings as the way shown to them by the best teacher and guide rasoulullah SAW. 

 

Their aqeedah (creed) was:

say Allah is Ahad,   (The Unique, The One…”

 Allah (is) As-Samad,

 He didnt beget nor was begotten,

and there is none like unto Him. ”  And,

 

there is no comparison to Him anything, and He is The-Hearing, The-Seeing

 

AND,

 

…and what the messenger brings to you take it, and what he refuses you from, refrain from it… ” (chapter 59:7)

 

AND,

 say (oh Muhammad to the believers): “Verily if you love Allah, then follow me, He will love you and forgive you. Allah is The Forgiving, The Especially Merciful” (3:31)

 

The efforts of the Du3’aat (every Muslim is essentially a daa’ee or daa’eya* {fem} along with being a worshiper) they have to propagate spread the call to invite to remind about the Deen in its totality. Thus safeguarding the MAIN Profession and the very core of the message held by the Prophet SAW the sahabas the tabi3een their followers and everyone that followed this pattern.

 

Another Tradition of the Sahabas

 Was, those who were scholarly had students under them, from the unscholarly companions and the tabi3eens learning from them. And these student later passed to their students until this present day and Insha’Allah until before the Last Hour.

 

The efforts of the Mu3allimoon wa Al-Muta3allamoon (scholars and students) protect the Ta’leem wa Ta’all-lum aspect of the Deen thus safeguarding the teaching and learning aspect of the deen held by the Prophet SAW the sahabas the tabi3een their followers and everyone that followed this pattern.

 

 

Another Tradition of the Sahabas was,

How they dealt with new problems and issues of the days after the passing away of the prophet SAW. Like when new Muslims that still harbored some beliefs from their previous doctrines came to them with questions, and when wolves in sheep-skin that wanted to break the Islamic Nation from the inside out by attacking its creed that were tainted with poison.

 

You will see and read that most didn’t interact with them nor responded to them, however they concentrated on their duties in Islam, but there were some that did answer their questions: Like Sayidna Umar, Ali, Abdullah Bin Masuud, Abdullah Bin Abbas.. to name a few.

 

So, for the sake of the deen, they answered them… not bringing innovation into the deen! So likewise, in the time of the tabi3ees, you will see Imam Abu Hanefa, and tabi3 tabi3een Imam Hanbal, Imam Awza’ee would respond to the deviant sects. Where as Imam Maalik, Imam Shafi3i did not. 

 

So there were two schools.

School of Tafweed (athariyyah)

 

(it is relegating the meanings of those verses and ahadeeth that those verses about the attributes of Allah that were ambiguous to Allah SWT, because the apparent linguistics and creed does not befit the Perfection of Allah SWT and His attributes and apparently clashed with other verses when take apparently).

This was the school of majority of the sahaba, tabi3een, tabi3-tabi3eens and even it is in line with all the mutakkalimoon. They did not interpret the verses nor negate them to respond to the heretic sects. This is the safest position.

 

However, there were two schools of ta’weel (acceptable interpretation) (ashariyyah-maturidiyyah) were the schools that form the views of those sahabas, tabi3eens, tabi3 tabi3eens, who did respond to the heretic sects. (remember wolves in sheepskin). There were two main extreme patterns: the too wet (emotional-figurative) and the too dry (formal-literal). This path is clearer and wiser, as one isn’t mislead.

 

 

A little about the two devious patterns:

 

The first fitnah really began with the mu’tazila who delved into philosophy and logic. The fitnah at the time of the prophet SAW and the first two caliphs was basically under the lid.

 

However, after the martyrdom of the second caliph and especially the third one, the sects of fitnah broke free… they tried to question the predestination, the identity of Allah SWT, whether the attribute is just an attribute or does it include Allah SWT, they tried to explain Qur’an and Hadeeth using logic and Aristotelian philosophy, they denied attributes of Allah SWT as if stripping Allah off of His attributes, the worst thorn was when they questioned about the creation of the Qur’an. And the great Imam Ahmed Bin Hanbal RA put them to shame, but was jailed for opposing and countering them for inculcating doubts in people and entering into unnecessary matters.  As the ruler that time was influence by the Mutazilis/ Al-Mo3tassem then Al-Montasser …etc 

The person responsible for this pattern, was Jahm Bin Safwaan (died: 129 AH).

So, because of their extreme way (denying the Attributes) this resulted in the second fitnah arising as a counter extreme group that went to the extreme of affirmation, leaving the apparent meaning of those Attributes of Allah SWT discussed in the Qur’an and Sunnah that are ambiguous as they are thus leading to anthropomorphisization of Allah SWT, they believe has a place and a direction that He has eyes, shin, two right hands he moves, he sits, he rests his feet on the footstool but headless! This pattern was headed and proclaimed by Muqaatil Bin Suleimaan Al-Azdi (died: 150).  There were many sub-sects that formed under these two. And, each one of them was refuted by the Mutakklimeen (the Scholars of/in Creed), the fuqaha, the mufassiroon, the muhaddithoon, and the lughawiyyuun (language scholars)!

 

So, the mutakkalimuun (Scholars of Creed); some of the Salaf-us-Saalih (Pious predecessors – those in the first three generation) many of the khalaf (successors –those after the first three generations) rebutted these sects in defense of Islaam, not to oppose the first school, but fear that the ordinary people would be lead astray by these sects.

 

The Deen way of Islamic consists of three parts, Iman, Islam, and Ihsan.

So, by the efforts of the Mutakallimoon on the Imaan part of deen have protected thus safeguarding the Beliefs held by the Prophet SAAWS the sahabas the tabi3een their followers and everyone that followed this pattern.

 

Also, the whole deen basically use the following by four sources to find answer…

1)    The Holy Qur’an (the word of Allah SWT),

2)    The sunnah (the traditions of the Prophets SAAWS),

3)    The Ijma3 (the consensus of the sahaba), and

4)    The Ijtehaad (-efforts- of the Mujtahideen*) – the methodology used by authorized and suited jurisprudents using common sense and, analogical deduction and reasoning (Qiyaas), to find solutions to cases not addressed explicitly by the previous three sources, not going against them!

 

 

Another tradition of the Sahabas

 

 was their method of dealing with the Jurispudential (Fiqh) issues thus, relating the practices of the Deen at the individual and communal levels. The Sahabas and their students (the tabi3eens – which means followers) subsequently formed two schools. The of AsHaab Ar-Ra2y*, founded by Sayidna Umar bin al-Khattaab RAA. and Sayidna Abdullah bin Masuud RAA. , and AsHaab Al-Athar*, founded by Sayidna Abdullah bin Umar and Sayyidna Abdullah ibn Al-Abbaas RAA. 

 

 

AsHaab Ar-Ra’i: use Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma3, and Ijtehaad that let more room for the usage of common sense and, analogical deduction and reasoning (Known as: Qiyaas), to deduce laws and rulings from the sources of Islamic jurisprudence for current and hypothetical situations that may occur and need answers to. That is why they are known as AsHaab Ar-Ra’i or the “What if-ers”. This does not mean they left the hadeeths or athaar. A big credit is given to them, for this is actual fiqh (understanding the application of the four sources of the Deen).

 

The Hanafi and Maaliki schools of jurisprudence (fiqh) are known as AsHaab Ar-Ra2y. The two have slightly different methods from each other.

(Read the posts about their founders and their methods)

 

AsHaab Al-Athar: use Quran, Sunnah, Ijma3, and Ijtehad that left little room for usage of common sense and analogical deduction and reasoning (or Qiyaas). That doesn’t mean they didn’t use ! otherwise they will be known as muhadditheen – scholars of hadeeths (narrations), rather than fuqaha jurisprudents.

 

The Shafi’ee and Hanbali schools of jurisprudence (fiqh) are known as AsHaab Al-Athar. The two also have slightly different methods between themselves.

 

So, on a plane of who resorts to usage of Qiyaas/athar

Hanafi – Maliki – Shafi’ee – Hanbali

ß——<—-|——–|—–>——à

Qiyaas ————————-Athar

 

 

And this was how the four mathhabs (“schools”) of fiqh*(jurisprudence) had stemmed from these two schools.

 

What these four mathhabs are are the 4 unanimously agreed upon and accepted methodologies to derive or understand … the Islaamic fiqh

 

 

Now, what about the following one of the mathhabs?

 

This, too, was not only the practice of the salaf, but also, the khalaf … you will see for example imam abujafar at-tahawi – the author/compiler of the Aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah – a mujtahid in his own right both in fiqh and hadeeth, but he switches from Shafi’ee Mathhab to Hanafi Mathhab .. Why doesn’t he mix? Did you hear him say or read that he said to the students of shafi don’t follow that follow Hanafi… He could have also made his own mathhab …but he didn’t… neither did Al-Bukhari nor An-nisaa’I nor Muslim… nor Imam Abu Yusuf .. nor Imam Muhammad , nor Al-Muzni , nor abu abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Al-Qaasim, nor Abdullah bin Ahmed bin Hanbal …etc I can list more and more — so why did the Ullema (scholars) of the Ummah in the past and present close the door of ijtehad in the shareeah (in the Shariah) and ijtehad fil mathhab (in the mathhab) ? And only left ijtehad fi al masaail (in the rulings) other than these 4 mathhabs? Because there cannot today be a single individual that can accumulate the amount of knowledge and meet the levels of a mujtahid in the mathhab let alone one in the shariah!!

 

He (At-TaHaawi) used the methodology of the Hanafi School to extract rulings and understandings from the quran and hadeeths.

 

Even ibn taymiyyah and ibn Al-Qayyim used the methodology of the Hanbali school in general, and they differed with some issues in the mathhab. But, you will see in their books, they’d affiliate themselves to the Hanbali mathhab.

 

So, likewise with how the quran, the different styles of Quranic recitation, the hadeeths, tafseers, history, and other sciences were compiled … the best of generations (the first three) saw that for the better benefit for the deen they had to “innovate” (for the sake of the deen—not “in” it).

 

So, the efforts of the mujamma3uun alqur’aan compilers of Qur’an, the qurraa` – the reciters, the fuqaha – jurisprudents, the mufassirroon – Qur’an exegesists, the muhaddithoon – hadeeth compilers and its shurraaH (explainers) – explanations, the mu2arrikhoon – historians, the muhaqqiquun – researchers, the lughawiyyeen wa an-nuHaat – the Arabic linguists and grammarian scholars, made effort to protect the Islaam part of Deen have protected thus safeguarding the Shariah and Practices held by the Prophet SAAWS the sahabas the tabi3een their followers and everyone that followed this pattern.

 

 

And another tradition,

was that the sahabas, would concentrate on the Akhira, making zuhd (disassociation of material), and self-purifying themselves and gaining closeness of Allah, cleaning their hearts of every disease, like Abi Dhar, Salman, AbuHurrairah, Abudardaa’, even Abu Bakr, Ali, Umar, Uthma, ..etc .

 

This was the tradition held by all and exclusively those who did not delve into the trials and strife of the day. Great tabi3ees followed their paths,like, Hasan Al-Basri RAH., Abdullah bin Mubaarak RAH, Ash-Sha3bee RAA, and Khalaf: like imam ghazaali RAA, AbdulQaadir Al-Jeilaani, Abul Hasan Ash-Shaadhuli, …etc. They concentrated in purifying their selves, gaining closenness to Allah, were occupied with acts of worship. Gaining piety God-Consciousness, gaining good morals and habits, making sure every sunnah was brought in their lives… some wouldn’t even eat a certain fruit or food, because they didn’t know how the prophet SAAWS would have eaten it. They’d be classified as as-soofis due to their wearing of wool (which is Soof in Arabic) living a life of harshness to gain closeness to Allah SWT. And this aspect is called – IHsaan or Tasawwuf or tazkiyyah or suluuk or adab.

The boundary for this aspect of the deen is set by the previous two aspects of the deen, Imaan and Islaam, and what was, in accordance to the practices of the Kheyr al-Quroon. We are to take to take from them following the instructions of our Prophet and to withhold anything thereafter that did not in conform to those three pious generations with acceptable corroborative evidence!

 

This aspect also had two main chains stemming from the original fountain the prophet saaws… although all sahaabas led such a life, there was the chain from Sayidna Abu Bakr bin Abi QaHafa RAA, and the chain from Sayidna Ali bin Abi Taalib KAW that transmitted this aspect of the deen from chests of men and women to those after them and so on and so forth.

The naqshabandi chain stems back to Sayidna Abubakr RAA, whilst the rest, most distinctively the chishti, the sahrawardi, and the qaadiri, and others reach back to Sayidna Ali RAA.

 

Those who made efforts in this aspect of the deen were called Awliyaa or “saints” or special friends of Allah swt – all muslims are awliyaa of Allah, but there are levels! So they were the highest level.

 

Now,

we believe that all kuffar don’t equal one muslim (even the muslim with one iota of Faith),

we believe all the awliyaa don’t equal to one sahaabi,

we believe all the sahaabas don’t equal to one nabi, and

we believe all the nabis don’t equal to our prophet Prophet Muhamamd SAAWS!

 

So, the efforts of the true Awliyaa protected the IHsaan aspect of the deen thus safeguarding the Piety or Spirituality held by the Prophet SAAWS the sahabas the tabi3een their followers and everyone that followed this pattern.

 

Visit www.tasawwuf.org

 

 

Another tradition of the SaHaabas,

was jihad / to protect and expand the boarders of Islaam

 

The efforts of the Mujahideen protected and expanded the Islamic State, along with its followers and those oppressed (even of the non-believers) , thus safeguarding the Jihaad aspect of deen held by the Prophet SAAWS the sahabas the tabi3een their followers and everyone that followed this pattern.

 

In summary, these traditions of the SaHaabas represent, the traditional pattern that has been kept traditionally alive by the pious successors of the pious predecessors from the Prophet and the Sahabaas, and until the last day, Insha`Allah

 

 And, they represent the majority of the Ummah those whom are upon the tradition of the Prophet and His Companions. Those who represent THIS Tradition pattern is the Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jamaah or “the People of Tradition and The (Approved) Group”

 

And to further elucidate this, is the hadeeth of the prophet: “Verily Allah SWT would never bring my Ummah together upon misguidance

 

 

 

 

 —————————————– —

 

 

I like to add a Note:

 

I understand in america and other western places, those who are in a certain mathhab make it appear sectarian, by labeling a masjed “a Hanafi masjid” , “a salafi masjid” , a “shafi’ee masjid”….etc and they exercise intolerance towards other than their ‘own’. This fortunately is not so in the continents of Asia and Africa and most of most places…  But, there are those very very few in india in morroco/tunis…etc who have gone to extreme into ta3assub (fanaticism) like those in the western countries. However, the difference is these places they are reprimanded, rebuked and have no chance to spread their fitna.

 

I wish you to look past these extremists or fanaticists, and try to understand the real position.

 

  

—————————————————

Wa AlHamdulillah wa as-salaatu was-salaamu 3ala khayr al bashr sayyidna Muhammad wa ala aalihi wa SaHbihi wa sallam

 

 

Fee Amaanillah

 

This was authored by: 

 

Ibn Ata Al-Hanafi

 

 

—————————————————-

 

*Requests for duas for him and his family!*

 

 

 

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